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刘汀 :自从卡夫卡让人类变成了甲虫,我们就再也不可能回到过去了

作者:  来源:凤凰读书  发布日期:2018-01-30 浏览次数: 

benwenchatu:ribenyishujiatanaka tatsuya


《中国奇谭》后记

刘汀

1

tanlun"xugou"zheiyangyigehuati,woshouxianxiangbingqisuoyouxuexiguodexiangguanlilun,huozheneixieweidarenwudelundiao,yinweijiranbukenengshuliqingchu,fanshouqiluan,daoburuwanquanbugu,zishuozihua。

zairenleidewenmingshishang,xugoushiguanjiandeyihuan,zhengshixugourangrenleizhangwolezhongxinrenshiheanpaishijiede

fangshi。shixiangyixia,zaiyuangushiqi,gulaoderenmenbasuoyoudejianwendoudangzuoquezaodeshishi,lianzongjiaohehuanjuedoushi,renheshijiezhenzhengbukefenge,huweiyiti。dangdiyigexugoudexijie--napashidiyijukeyigouchengxushidehuangyandanshengshi,shijiejiuwanquanbutongle,renleideyishishijieyewanquanbutongle。zaimouzhongchengdushang,zheibuyayu"shangdishuoyaoyouguang,yushijiuyouleguang"dechumingmingzhiyiyi。neigehunyuanyitideshijie,zhongyubeixugousikaileyitiaofengxi,erweideguannian,zhongyuyouledisangeweidu。xugoushirencongziranshijiedulichulaidezhongyaobuzhou。

xugoudezuizhongjieguoyeshizuizhongyaodejieguozhiyi,shixiaoshuodansheng。zhiyouxiaoshuochengweiyizhongwendingdexugoufangshi,renleicainengzaiyidingchengdushangmofangshangdiheshen,tongguoxushifuyurenhufenghuanyu、zuoyoutiandidenengli。jiduanyidian,womenshenzhikeyishuoxugoushijiangouwomenguannianshijiedebenzhifangshi。suoyi,zhenzhengyouguanxiaoshuodewenti,douyaohuidaoyi"xugou"weixiansuoderenleifazhanshihewenmingshishanglaitaolun。ruguoyoukeneng,xieyibu《 xugoudelishi》,jianghuishijiyoujiazhideshiqing。

2

womenyijingshuolehenjiu,xiaoshuodegenbentezhengjiushixugou;xiaoshuojia,shicongkongzhongzhuaquxianshideren。

danwomenzhengzaidanwang( tongshiyeshidanhua)zheiyidian,duikeguanzhenshidezhuiqiu,zhengzaimanmantunshixugoudeliliang。womensihuzhengjinglifeixugouleiwentidazhangqigudeniandai,wangluozhibo、xinwenbaodao、zimeitiwenzhangdengdeng,yizhenshizhimingdaxingqidao,meigerendoubeixixiaodaopm2.5dexianshishijianbaoweizhe。dangranqingxingzhehuiduisuoyoubeibiaoweishishidedongxibaochijingti:shijianliushi,shishinanliao,henduocengjingyanzhizaozaodezhenshi,houlaibeifaxianlaiyuanyulingyizhonggengdadexugou。

zaixugouyijingchengweiyizhongjibenyuansu,bingqietonglinglexiaoshuoxiezuoshubainianzhihou,renjiuzouxiangtadefanmian,kaishichangshizhuiqiuyizhongzhenshi。renhuixuanzexingdiwangjizhenshibingfeiquezaodemougedongxi,ersuoyouyiqiedouyoulaiyurenmendeguannianduitaderenshi,jibianshiyigesanbailiushiduwusijiaodeshexiangjisuopaishede,yeyiranzhinengshiyouxiandezhenshi--suoyi,zhenshizhishiyigenengzhi,bingmeiyougudingdesuozhi。

renmenduifeixugouderecheng,laiyuanyuduishenghuozishendegemohelengmo。shishishang,neixiefeixugouzuopinsuojilude,dabufenweirenmenrichangjinglideshiwu,danwomenbingbuquzhuyi,huozhelandequsikao,dangyourenzuolezheigegongzuozhihou,womenhuixingfendishuo:kanya,zheishijiejingranshizheiyangde。

erqie,jiuzaiyipianwenzhangzhongxiedao,feixugouzuopinzhongdehexindongrenchu,bingbushizhenshi,zhenshizhishitadedise,ershitade"xugou"bufen,yejiushiyongwenxuedexushishoufaqujiangou、miaoshuhechengxiandebufen。yidonggaoloudashadezuizhongyangzi,yaoshouzhiyutadeshejituzhi,erbushicailiao。cailiaoshizhenshide,danzhiyouxugoucainengjianzaodasha。

zaixiaoshuodelingyuli,youguanzhenshidezhuiqiuyerijianzouchuleyingyoudefanwei,"jiediqide"chenglepanduanhenduoxiaoshuodediyibiaozhun,yuelaiyueduodezuozhebeidanchundexianshixiefatuoxialeshenshui。shide,zaishenshuiliwuchanfengfu,guangxianhunan,womenwuxukaolvtaiduo,zhiyaofangsongshenxin,piaofuzaiqizhongjiukeyile,zongyouwushudexianshishenghuotigongkexiedesucai。zaizheiguchaoliuzhong,womenfangqile,shenzhibuduanchaoxiaoyouzhongxinjiangoushijieqitudehongdaxushi,womenzhizheyushenzhichongbaiyurichangshenghuo;erzairichangshenghuoli,womenyoushenxiannanhuannvaihegerenqingxuzhizhong,womenbingbudiruchenai,ershihechenaiqinmiwujian。

youbiyaobianmingdeshi,xiexianshishiyaoyourenjianyanhuoqi,erbujinjinjiushirenjianyanhuo,zheierzhedequbiebeihulvele。zheiyidian,buyaoshuoxiaoshuo,lianshigedoubuliwai,junbujiandangxiadeshigezhongchongchizhexushideyouling,erqieshiouhenglishidexushi,shixiangshenghexiaopinbanzuzhangdoubaofudeyouling。shigezhongdexudebufentongyangbeihulvele。zheijiuxiangshi,shangdifangqiletachuangzaoshijiedeweili,ermeitianquguanchaimiyouyan、chihelasa。shangdiyinggaitongguotadechuanshuohexushizairenjian,erbushizijizairenjian,xiaoshuojiayeyinggairuci。

3

zuoweiduzhe,tongshiyeshizuoweizuozhe,wowufamanzuyukandaodexiaoshuozhishimiaomoxianshishenghuo,huozherubufenpipingjiasuoyan,mouxiezuopinshenkedifanyinglewomendeshenghuo,ruguozhishizheiyang,zuojiacunzaidebiyaoxingjiujijikeweile。womentongchuzaiyigeshidailimian,nisuobiaodadedongximeiyouchaochuwodejingyan,duiwojiushiwuxiaode。

xiaoshuosuoxiedebingfeishibeirenweishiquedingdeneiyibufen,qiaqiaxiangfan,womenyaobiaodadejiushirenleisuowufayongqitayuyansushuodeneibufen:womenyaoyongyizhengbushuxieyizhongtongku,yizhonggudu,yizhongwuliao,danwomenbunengzhijieshuo。zhiyouxugoudefengxizhizhong,caikenengyunzangduzhekeyitiweideqingganyinsu。

wodediyibuxiaoshuo《 bukecunxinzha》chubanhou,jijialijiquleyiben。wobenyiweineibenshutamenbukenenghuidu,danyouyitianwojiedaomuqindedianhua,tashuoneibenshutadaizhelaohuajingyigeziyigezidikanwanle。zenmeyang?wowenta。tazhiyouyijuhuida:biandehaixing。zheijuhuazuyi,tawuyizhongwanquanquerenlexiaoshuodexugoubenzhijiushibian,bianxiahua,biangushi。

bian。zidianhuigaosuniyigeyiyi,danshenghuohuigaosunilingyigeyiyi,wenxuejiushibazheixieyiyiningguxialai。

4

wenxuedashi,xujiubishi,shijiubixu。erjiuwodeguancha,zaijingguolejishinianduizhenshidezizizhuiqiuzhihou,xiaoshuodexugouxingzhengbeirenmenzhongxindalaoqi,zaicizhaohuitadeweizhigan。wozaihenduoqianbeizuojiahetongbeizuojiadexiaoshuoli,yuelaiyueduodiganshoudaoxugouliliangdeshengzhang,bianxing、kuazhang、yinyu、xiangzheng,suoyoucengjingchizhafengyundeshibabanwuqiyoubeirenwozaileshouli。neixiezhagenyuxianshidegushi,jiecitupodibiaoherichangluoji,zaiwomendejingyanshijielishenzhanzhitiao,zhanfanghuaduo,jiechuguoshi。

danshibijingshidaiyuyujingtianfandifu,womendexugouhecengjingdexugou,zongyouzhebutong。woouerzaixiang,jiranruci,yaobuyaozunxuntaolu,zaixugouqianmianjiashangyigexinzini?

xinxugou--zheidangranshiyigepinjieci,zheizhongcizaiwenxueshishanghenduo,xinxiaoshuo,xinxieshi,xinlangchao,dengdeng,wanshigeyouqixin,wanwugeyouqilao。meidangyigeshiwumianqianbeiguanyixinzizhishi,jiushitadeshuailaozhishi,yeshitadexinshengzhishi。danzheibushituidaozhonglai,ershixiangchantui,tuoquneicengyijingshiqueguangzedeqiao,zhongxinluchuxinxiandexueroulai,zhiyouxinxiandexueroucainengzhongxinganzhizheigeshijiedelengyure、tongyuma。zheibenzhijiururenleidefanyan,dikangsiwangdeweiyifangshi,jiushifanyan,yongyizhongjielongdefangshiquzhuiqiuyongsheng,zaizheigeyiyishang,suoyourenhuodedoushitongyigeren。 yeshizaizheigeyiyishang,xinshengming,qishijiushilaoshengming,xinxugou,qishijiushilaoxugou。

baguyoudeshiwujiashangyige"xin"zi,zheishiyigetaolu,dantaoluyoutaoludezuoyong,qizhongzhiyijiushikeyiheguyoudeguannianxingchengyouxiaodeduijie。jiusuanshigainian,yezongyaojitajigehuomohuhuoqingxidejieding,yitifangtabeiqitagainianxishoudiao。

neime,xinxugoukenengyoushenmeyangdejiedingni?shuoshihua,womeifajichuqueqiededingyi,shenzhiwozijidoubuzhidaozheigecijiujingyoumeiyouyiyi,danwoduiciyousuoxiangxiang。

xinxugoudeyisi,keyishicongzhanlveshanghushixuheshidegainianhejiexian,gengbuzaihushoufashixieshihaishixuanhuan,yiqieyizuihoudewenbenlaipanding:tanengfouzizu,bingyizijidefangshixiangwaifali;tanengfounulituozhanshidebianjie,dangengfengfulexudekeneng;tanengfouzaiyiyoudexiaoshuozhiguannianzhongzaochuyisikongxi,rangwenbenchengxianbutongdemianmao;tanengfouchuangzaooubaoappshijierenzhidexinjiaoduhefangfa;tashifouchanshengmoshengdeyueduhejieshoukuaigan……

xinxugou,bushixindexugou,shenzhitabuzhenduimouzhongjiudongxi;tazhenduideyebingfeizhenshiheshishi,ershiduirenheyizhongxiefahuofenggedegudingrenzhi;tashiliudongde,meidangyizhongxugouxingshijuyoulewentibandewendingxing,tajiuyaoxunzhaoxindequqiao。tayinggaishiyigebusidehunpo,jiezhubutongdexiaoshuowenbenersheng。

woyiranjianxinxianshizhuyi,danwogengxiwangkandaotahexugouyougengduodejiehefangshi,feikehuan,feimohuan,feixianshi,feixinxieshi,tatichangxugouhexianshidewufengxianjieheziyouzhuanhuan,tayigengxinrenleidejingshentiyanweimude。

xinxugouyinggaishineizhongkeyiweixianshifuyu"lingyun"dexugou。lingyunshijieyongbenyamingdeciyu,danhetadeshuofadebenyiyouchuru。

woyaojudao《 bianxingji》delizi。

wowushucigenbierenjiang,nimenzaiyueduweidadezuopin《 bianxingji》shi,nandaojiumeiyoufaxianqizhongyige

feichangguanjiandewentima?erzheigewenti,zhengshiweidadexugousuochuangzaohetichude。ciwentijiushi:danggeligaoer·samushayiyexinglaibianchengyizhijiachongzhihou,tazijihejiarenjingransihaobugandaokongbuhezhenjing。zuoweiyigebianxingderen,tasuodanxindeshiruxiazheixieshi:

"a,tianna,"taxiang,"wozenmedandantiaoshangzheimeyigeleirendechashini!zhangnianleiyuedaochubenbo,bizuobangongshixinkuduole。zaijiashanghaiyoujingchangchumendefannao,danxingecihuochededaohuan,budingshierqiediliedeyinshi,erpingshuixiangfengderenyezongshixiefanfanzhijiao,bukenengyoushenhoudejiaoqing,yongyuanbuhuibianchengzhijipengyou。rangzheiyiqiedoujianguiquba!"

"qichuangzheimezao,"taxiang,"huishirenbianshade。renshixuyaoshuijuede。……buguoyanxiawohaishiqichuangweimiao,yinweihuochewudianzhongjiuyaokaile。"

woxiangxin,zairenheyizhongxianshishenghuoli,womendouhuibeiyigerenbianchengjiachongerhehuaide,danweiyouzaikafukaneilibuhui,weishenme?yinweitarangrenbianchengjiachongzheizhongxugoujiushizhenzhengdexugou,xiangbijiaoyuzhiqiandexugou,zheijiushixinxugou。zaizheili,xianshihefeixianshi、xiangxiangheguannianwufengduijiele,huozheshuozaizheiyangdeshike,womenyinggaibingqiguyoudeyouguanxugouhezhenshideguannian,erjinrulingyizhongsiweicengmian,jiyizhonggenggaode、chuncuidesiweicengmian。zhiyouzaizheiyangdeyujingli,bianchengjiachongcaimeishenmekedanxinde,erqiebuduandidanxinganbushanghuochecaishiyouliliangde。huozheshuo,suoyouyouguanrichangshenghuodexianshijiaolv,zhishiyiqibenlaimianmubiaoxianchulai,shiwuyiyide;dantatongguozuojiadexugou,yiwenxuedemianxiangjishirenkan,jiuchanshengleshenqidexiaoguo。

我们的悲哀就是,自从卡夫卡让人类变成了甲虫,我们就再也不可能回到过去我们再也不可能回到古典的,人与自然、人与他人、人与自身一体的时代了,并且我们再也无法直接去认识任何事,所有的认识都必须通过文学手法--隐喻、象征、寓言,才可能实现,在我们自身与世界之间,必须通过媒介才能沟通。这听起来有点耳熟,正如在古典的世界里,必须通过巫师才能和上天沟通一样,只不过我们更为降格而已。如果说文学( 或者艺术)是现代生活的宗教仪式,那虚构就是这个仪式的核心部分。也就是在这个意义上,虚构应该被看作是小说之所以为小说的本体性元素。

5

paochuzheiyangyigehuati,zhishixiangjiecijihuizhongxintaolunxiaoshuodebiyaoxinghekenengxing--ruguotazhendebiyaobingqiekenengdehua,shishishang,woyinggaihuanyizhongshuofa,bushixiaoshuo,ershixushi。jiusuanxiaoshuozheizhongwentixiaoshile,xushiqueyongyuanbuhuixiaoshi,xushizhongdexugouxushigengbuhui。xugoushirenleidebenneng,shitianrandejitiwuyishi,meiyouxugoudeshijiejiangshiququanbu"huo"detezheng。

suoyi,womenyinggaiqiangdiao"xugou",qiangdiaotazaixushizhongdehexinzuoyong,dangranyejiushigulihejieshousuoyouduixugoudechangshi。huoxuzaizheipianwenzhangdeqianmian,wodouzaiqiangdiao"xugou"dezheige"xu"zi,xianzaizebixuqiangdiao"gou"。bingbushisuoyoudexu,dounenggouchengyigeyouluojiheneirongdexushi。zhiyoujuyouchuangzaoxingde"gou"cainengrangxujubeishidexiaoguo,rangshihanyouxuderouruanxing。xushiyuanze,shifangfalun,goucaishijutidefangfa,yecaishikaoyanhezhengmingyigezuojianenglidedifang。

xinxugou,zheishiwocikesuonengxiangxiangdexiaoshuokenengxing,zhiyi,zhishaoshiwogerenxiezuodekenengxing。

作者简介 刘汀,1981生于内蒙古赤峰市,青年作家,《人民文学》杂志编辑,现居北京。出版有长篇小说《布克村信札》《青春简史》,散文集《别人的生活》《老家》。文学作品多发表于《人民文学》《十月》《钟山》《山花》《青年文学》《诗刊》等杂志。曾获新小说家大赛新锐奖、第39届香港文学奖小说组亚军、第二届华语青年作家奖非虚构提名奖等。

zuozhe: liuting

chubanshe: zuojiachubanshe

chubannian: 2017-11

内容简介 

《zhongguoqitan》de12buduanpianxiaoshuozhong,yidangdaizhongguoputongrendeshenghuozhuangtairushou,zhelimiaoxieletamendezhengzhayutuoxie,jieshichudangdairenshenkedejingshenkunjingyudaodekunhuo。wenziyoujianruidechujueyulengjingdepouxi。dulailingrenzhenhan。

zheili,huoxuyounicongweiduguodeshiergegushi:sanshisuidelaolinghun;jingshenhuhuandeshiren;zhiwurendehuanxiangshijie;chuanyuetangchaodedaxuejiaoshi;beifuqinqiujinzaijianyudeshaonian;chengshiliquanrenqusideteshuzhiyezhe;xugourenwudebeicanaiqing;gensishenweiyouderen;yongyuankanbujianbaitiandeyebanchesiji……

12pianxiaoshuoxiedeshi12duanxiandairencangbaideshenghuoshi,zuozheshizhedatonglexianshiyuxuhuandejiexian,rangwenbendexushizhanglidadaozuidadetongshinenggouzizu。shijinnianlaibukeduodedeyibuduanpianji。


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